Reader Bryce asks the following interesting questions. A little background on Bryce will serve to put his questions, and my answers to them, in proper context.

Bryce is a service member (US Navy), currently serving a good portion of his time aboard ship. Of course, this limits his available Paleo choices, both food-wise and workout-wise. Bryce’s training background is CrossFit-oriented — his diet, Zone-oriented – so he’s got a good, solid base from which to phase, where practicable for him, into a more Paleo-like lifestyle.

As a preface to the questions, let’s all remember, as always, that in any given situation, there’s the ideal choice, and then there’s the best available option in that given circumstance. I firmly believe that one of the main pillars to success with the Paleo way is to both realize the difference between the two, followed then, by choosing the best of available options in each given circumstance. I like to envision this as an ongoing wrestling match; each offensive advance, followed by the resultant, defensive counter-move. Punch, reaction, counter-punch, if you will. The next immediate step, then, is to wash your hands of the decision/action – don’t beat yourself up for having to make a sub-par decision in the context of a bad circumstance. Learn from the situation and move on. And, as always, do yourself the favor of limiting, wherever and whenever possible, submersion into sketchy situations.

So here’s Bryce’s questions. I’ve taken the liberty to paraphrase a bit, so I hope he doesn’t mind:


I’m writing because I had some questions about the paleo diet.  I know there are other channels that I could go through, but I’ve come to trust your opinion on these things, and I wanted your advice on a few points.

First, dairy: I know we didn’t evolve to eat dairy, and I could understand about not drinking milk (though it grieves me) because of the lactose, but what about hard cheeses? I haven’t found a satisfactory explanation or why these sources of relatively sugar free animal fat and protein are bad for me. Tonight for dinner I had a .5lb 93% lean burger (no bun of course), with a good slab of feta, mustard, spinach, and a little ketchup (bad I know). If the cheese helps me cope with the paleo diet, especially when I’m onboard my ship, or in another kitchen/grocery diminished capacity, is it that bad to have it? One day I may try to go without dairy, but I’d like to think it was for a good reason first. A potential follow up question would be: is lactose inherently worse for you than fructose? Does it, by itself, induce a more potent insulin response? I know we are ok with eating fruit because the insulin response is muted by the fiber in the fruit.”

Personally, the only dairy I take in is small amounts of (mostly)hard hard cheese now and again, and an occasional bit of yogurt.  Dairy has never been one of my “things” though, so for me, limiting it is no big deal.  I think though, that for those attempting to cut body fat as low as possible — or actively dieting down — it should be treated as a once in a blue moon treat — if not completely eliminated — as it can produce (depending upon form, load, etc.) a significant insulin hike (dependent upon lactose level of the dairy consumed).  We also have the negative auto-immune issues to address, and this is the overriding, in my opinion, knock on dairy.  Overall, I consider dairy as kind of a gray Paleo issue.  My take is, if you really enjoy it, have it sparingly, get it raw (if possible), and consume it full-octane (i.e., the full fat version).  By the way, I love Feta, too.  Limited dairy will neither make nor break you.   As far as lactose being worse/better than fructose, I think that the load of the carrier, the fat and fiber content, all have to be considered.  Here’s what I mean: consider the body’s insulin response to commercial whey protein.  These products will no doubt put the (fat) pounds on you in a hurry.  Why?  Well, these products are basically no more than protein and lactose. Hello insulin response!  The same comparison can be made between whole fruit and fruit juice.  I hate to be flippant, but really the lactose/fructose question is kinda like asking, which is better: a poke in the eye, or a kick in the ribs?  To even begin to choose, we first need to know in what manner, and to what degree.  Personally, I get around this quandary by limiting my intake of both.  This is the only viable real world solution you have.

“Secondly, legumes.  I read something recently suggesting the research condemning them was inconclusive. Thoughts? Because peanut butter has been a big help as a source of monounsaturated fatty acids and protein.”

Whenever I consider what foods are acceptable for my brand — the TTP brand — of the Paleo lifestyle, my first consideration is this: how does (or will) my body respond to the consumption of that food?  Obvious, right?  Well, not so fast.  Many people, both inside and outside the Paleo community, tend to become tunnel-visioned into the exact specifics of what our Paleolithic ancestors may or may not have consumed.  This can obviously lead to confusion and arguments over those said specifics, due to the fact that early man inhabited such a wide range of environments and had access to varying foodstuffs — and, more specifically, varying amounts and types of carbohydrates.  See this post as an example.  For me, though, the question is not simply what the human body can survive on, I want to know what the human body is geared to thrive on.  And this is where science comes into play.  What is the insulin response to a certain food?  The auto-immune response?  What is the resultant C-reactive protein level in the blood system.  How does a specific diet or foodstuff affect athletic and/or cognitive performance?  These are all questions, or screens, if you will, that a foodstuff has to do well on in order to make it to my plate.   Legumes, quite simply, don’t pass that screen due to their resultant and substantial insulin response.  Now, are legumes as “bad for you” as grains?  I honestly don’t know.  My personal feeling is that, although they illicit a substantial insulin response, they probably don’t hammer the auto-immune system to the degree that grains are capable of.  My policy is simply to avoid both legumes and grains whenever possible.  By the way, I have found that fresh cashew butter, if you can get your hands on some, is a good substitute for peanut butter.

And finally, oatmeal.  I know it’s an evil grain, and I’m not married to it, but the Zone crowd seem to have great things to say about it. Are they nuts?

I guess my take on oatmeal would just be,  why even consider it when there are so many other, better, non-grain options?  I think the Zone crowd’s infatuation with oatmeal steams from the fact that most of these people have just come in out the western diet wasteland, and anything — hell, even rank vegetarianism — is an improvement over that.  The Zone diet will still not force the body to covert to being a fat burner, i.e., there will still be a heavy reliance upon glucose as a primary fuel source.  So, I guess the question then becomes “I love oatmeal relative to…?”  What, Lucky Charms?  A bagel?  Donuts?  If those are the options, then hell yeah, by all means opt for the oatmeal.  Personally, given that situation, I would simply fast.  Of course, I’m no longer at the mercy of roller-coaster blood glucose levels, so fasting is a viable option.  Not so for the Zone crowd.

“Anyway, thanks again for being a source of continual, educational, “epistemocratic,” information on diet and exercise. It’s nice to find a voice in the darkness!”

Not a problem, Bryce.  I really enjoy writing, talking and doing the Paleo way.  In fact, get me going, and I have a hard time stopping.  Feel free — and this goes for anyone and everyone — to shoot me any questions you may have to  Alternatively, you can always leave a question via a comment to a particular post.

In Health,



  1. Keith,
    Thanks for this posting. I’ve been struggling with bodyfat on my lower abs and low back for some time now despite intermittent fasting. I like cheese and eat it often- probably with every meal. I also consume a 1-3 homemade smoothies a week. When I make the smoothies, I’ve been using one serving of blueberries and strawberries mixed with water and whey protien. Could the cheese and the smoothies (with the whey )be undermining my efforts?

  2. As usual, a well-thought-out and explained post.

    I’m totally in agreement with nearly everything you’ve said. The only minor disagreement I have is with your comments about oatmeal, and those might be only related to my personal physiology.

    I eat no grains, haven’t for years. But for some reason, a bowl of oatmeal seems to work just fine for me. That might have something to do with the fact that I usually have it with some walnuts, and often make it with coconut milk instead of water. But I can eat a bowl of oatmeal in the morning and not be hungry again until mid-afternoon, just as is the case with a high-protein/fat breakfast (like salmon with vegies).

    I find this especially useful when traveling, as that’s often just about the only healthy thing on breakfast menus for me (I’m allergic to eggs), unless I have a breakfast steak or something, which I also do.

    Everyone’s physiology and degree of insulin- and grain-sensitivity is different of course, and the fact that I do eat pretty much paleo all the time probably makes a difference, but oatmeal has always worked for me, even when other grains didn’t at all.

    • Charles,
      I agree, everyone’s ability to tolerate certain foodstuffs — or environmental stresses, for that matter — is different. For instance, I know that anything containing wheat (even wheat beer) is a huge red flag for me. On the other hand, I can tolerate much more in the way of physical stress (workout duration and intensity), without fear of over-training, than I would ever initially recommend for others. Know yourself, know your goals, and tweak where needed and accordingly.

      I think eliminating the smoothies and curbing the cheese consumption would be a sensible move.

  3. As far as the lactose and the whey causing insulin responses, would these be reflected on a nutrition label as carbs. I.E., I use heavy cream for coffee on the weekends and iced coffees but carbs are obviously listed at zero. I guess my question is would be does the lactose show up on nutrition labels as carbs and does something show up for the whey?

    I’m going to have to check my protein powder. I know it’s only got two or three net carbs for 20 grams of protein.

    In do eat cheeses but not as often as I’m trying to watch calories. Though hard cheeses are good for vit k2.

    • Joe,
      That’s a good question that I’m afraid I don’t have an answer for. I would assume that the lactose/fructose would have to show up on the label as a net carb, but the labeling laws are so screwy, who knows? Maybe they only have to account for added sugars? If anyone does know, please chime in. I’d like to know, out of rank curiosity, as well. Also note that it’s the lack of fat in certain processed foods that intensifies the insulin spike (and, I would assume, the auto-immune hit) of the lactose and/or fructose present in these products. Have steak and eggs post workout, and let the government do whatever the hell they want with the food labels 🙂

      Yeah, I know. But hey, it was worth the laugh, huh?

  4. Keith, thanks for another great column.

    A question re: supplementation. I had bought a couple pounds of whey protein a year ago, and around the same time bought some “micellar casein” which was touted as being good for muscular development — the idea being you took the casein at night before bed, and it clumped in your stomach, feeding protein to your system and stopping catabolism.

    There was some research supporting this, so I bought the stuff, and took it for a few weeks before getting out of the workout habit.

    I’m now getting back into working out again, and I’m trying to decide if I should just toss all the supplements, or only the whey. I seem to recall that Peter over at Hyperlipid has some bad things to say about casein, but I’m curious about what you think?

    • BC,
      Good idea. Where do you find coconut flakes?

      I think the first thing that must be determined is what can be considered “healthy” as opposed to “what works”. An extreme of this notion would be steroids, HgH, insulin, etc. Do they work for building muscle mass? Hell yeah they do. Are they necessarily “healthy”? Well, that’s another matter entirely. Now, I’m certainly not going to group micellar casein in the steroid cost-to-benefit category, but you get my point.
      I do think, though, that a naturally healthy body is tuned to go through alternating periods of over and under fed states. It would seem to me that what this product touts would alter that natural cycle. Again, we get back to cost-to-benefit, what works vs. health. I can say this unequivocally: it is more than possible to get all the protein you’ll ever need from whole, natural sources. Possible, yes — convenient? Well, that’s something each will have to determine individually. One other argument I’ve heard is that refined protein products (some, i.e., Dr.Scott Connelly’s product) are healthier due to the fact that any environmental toxins from the original source have been removed. That’s an argument I could certainly entertain.

  5. Steak and eggs sounds terrific right now! I would almond butter as a good replacement for peanut butter. One breakfast I have gotten from Craig Ballentiine is pecans, blueberries, coconut flakes and almond butter all mixed together. Yum!

    I would also say that if you are going to use whey protein powder, add a fat source to it to eliminate the spike, like avocadoes or coconut or nuts or even raw eggs. You could probably replace the whey protein with raw eggs and get your protein from that. Can’t improve on mother nature!

  6. RE: Milk

    I’m one of the “lucky” few who tolerate milk with no such issues whatsoever, as evidenced by my “gallon a day” periods of youth with no negative sides. Nowadays, it’s cottage and hard cheese and I’m right as rain.

    As for “natural,” it’s important to note that the Masai consume milk in abundance, while the Inuit would likely cramp a bowel on the stuff. Goes back to cultural anthropology banging on about no “one” paleo diet.


    • Skyler,
      Agreed. However, I’m always thinking about the sliding scale of survive vs. thrive; in other words, I wonder if the Masai would improve in health/longevity factors if they traded a good bit of their dairy consumption for an equal amount of flesh protein and fat. I think this would be a fascinating area of study.

  7. I get unsweetened coconut flakes in the bulk section at Whole Foods/Wild Oats. My wife uses them in her Fage full fat greek yogurt and I use them in various dishes that I make up. Also have used them to make coconut shrimp.


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